Safed Musli is found in tropical climates of the world. It is found mainly in India, America, and Australia. Safed Musli is a traditional medicinal plant in India. Its tuberous roots are used to prepare herbal products and ayurvedic medicines, especially a nutritive tonic used for curing general sexual weakness. It is a rich source of over 25 alkaloids, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, steroid and polysaccharides. The demand of safed musli is all over world which has made it famous by such names as “Indian Viagra”, “Roots of gold”, “Herbal Viagra”, “The wonder crop” etc. The most noted benefits of Safed musli is it’s use in treating sexual deficiencies. It has been used for years to treat libido and infertility problems.


Safed musli ( Chlorophytum borivilianum) is a traditional Ayurvedic medicine since ancient times. According to Bhavprakash ( The Ayurvedic Text) the drug is sweet, cooling, mucilaginous increases Kapha and reduces `Pitta daha and acts as stimulant, it gives strength. Mush prepared as a paste with goats milk or honey and applied locally over the face, brightens the complexion of the face. It is extensively used by the Ayurvedic practitioners for a wide variety of ailments and particularly an ingredient of aphrodisiac preparations.

Its Common Name:

Hindi – Safed Moosli, Dholi Musli, Khiruva
English – Land-calotrops
Latin – Chlorophytum Borivilianum
Family Name- Liliaceae
Sanskrit – Swetha Musli
Tamil – Taniravi Thang
Telgu – Swetha Musli
Malayalam- Shedheveli
Marathi – Safed Musli
Gujarati – Dholi Musli
Arabic – Shaqaqule

Safed Musli grows wild in thick forests and is a traditional medicinal plant. Mainly its tuberous roots are used in Ayurvedic medicines. Roots are used for the preparation of a nutritive tonic used in general sexual weakness. Safed Musli has been named in the Atharva Veda as one of the divine herbs, offering cure for many ailments and health related problems. The origin of Safed Musli, a wild herb, can be traced back to the Aravallis, the oldest mountain ranges of the continent, from where it spread to the nearby areas, presently known as the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It is a herb with sub-erect lanceolate leaves. Nowadays, there is a vast demand all over the world, especially in the Gulf countries and the West. Due to its vast demand it is very costly.

Because of its significant medicinal properties, Chlorophytum borivilianum, a variety of Safed Musli has got today maximum demand and commercial value. There are around 256 varieties of Chlorophytum in the world; in India, we have around 17 of them, of which, borivilianum has got a good market demand to in the global market. Safed Musli belongs to family of Liliaceae. It was originally grown in dense forest in natural form, and is a traditional medicinal plant. Mainly its tuberous roots are used in ayurvedic medicines. Roots are used for the preparation of nutritive tonic used in general sexual weakness. These roots contain spermatogenetic, spermatorrhoea and chronic leucorrhoea due to chemical contents. It is partly a herb with sub-erect lanceolate leaves. Nowadays, there is a very vast demand all over the world ( specially gulf countries and cold countries). Due to its vast demand it is very costly. It would not be an exaggeration to call Safed Musli a unique, potent and versatile medicine discovered by the genius of ancient India. It is a rich source of over 25 alkaloids, vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, steroids, saponins, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phenol, resins, polysaccharides etc. Safed Musli is an important ingredient of more than a hundred Ayurvedic, Allopathic, Homeopathic and Unani medicinal preparations. As a (protein rich) food supplement, there is a tremendously growing International demand for processed Safed Musli.

Safed musli as Medicinal Herb:

Safed musali ( Chlorophytum borivilianum) is a traditional rare Indian medicinal herb which has many therapeutic applications in Ayurvedic, Unani, Homeopathic and Allopathic system of medicine. Its roots (tubers) are widely used for various therapeutic applications. Safed Musli is used to cure physical illness and weakness, as an aphrodisiac agent and revitalizer, as general sex tonic, remedy for diabetes, arthritis and increasing body immunity, curative for natal and postnatal problems, for rheumatism and jointpains, increase lactation in feeding mothers, as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor agent, also used in diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, leucorrhea etc. Safed musli  has spermatogenic property and is found useful in curing impotency, now it is considered as an alternative ‘Viagra’. Its root contains steroidal and triterpenoidal saponins, sapogenins and fructans which act as therapeutic agents and play vital role in many therapeutic applications.

Safed musli other uses:

The main use of Safed musli is to increase Male and Female Libido and a Fitness Supplement.

Safed musli Benefits:

1. Safed musli is often prescribed for enhancing male potency and overcoming signs of fatigue. It is particularly used for individuals with low sperm count and low libido.

2. Safed musali is an energy booster in asthmatic conditions and its root used to strengthen the general immune system of the body.

3. Safed Musli has anti-ageing properties. It rejuvenates the “whole” body and mind without any side effects.

4. The tuber roots of the Safed musli plant used as a nutritive tonic for sexual weakness.

5. Safed musli proves useful as a nutritive tonic for both the mother and the fetus, during pregnancy.

6. The herb improves the quantity and flow of breast milk, in feeding mothers.

7. Safed musli is used to control and prevent obesity and its side effects.

8. The activities of vitamin C and antioxidant enzymes are also enhanced by the use of Safed musli

9. Research has shown that the plant species is used for curing diabetes and arthritic conditions.

10. Safed musli is also beneficial in the treatment of natal and postnatal problems.

11. Safed musli regular use causes increase in the level of HDL or good cholesterol and decrease in the plasma and hepatic lipid profiles.

12. The regular use of root powder prevents premature ejaculation and also used in chronic leucorrhoea.

13. It is a powerful aphrodisiac agent for men and is used for curing male reproductive system disorders like impotence, low sperm count and premature ejaculation etc.


Economics related to Safed musli:

The global markets of Safed Musli are in U.S.A. Britain,European countries, Australia, Japan and even China. Japan and China have the highest per capita consumption of botanical medicines in the world. Safed Musli have annual demand around 35000 MT while only 15000 MT is produced. Safed musli ( Chlorophytum borivilianum) root powder is in great demand for power and sexual energy capsules. Safed musali increase energy, provide healthy hormone function, enhance muscle movement and widely used in Ayurvedic medicines. The world ís demand of Safed Musli is over 50,000 Tons, and is much higher than present production, which is less than 5,000 Tons in various farmlands in India. Best Nutrition Products U.S.A is seriously looking for farmers who would like to grow these medicinal plants especially in Orissa. Nearly ten quintals of fleshy root (wet) per hectare collected is reduced to 200 kg (about 20% of wet root wt) after processing and drying. In the domestic market, the rates ranges between Rs 800 to Rs 1800 per kg depending on the quality of the product. The Medicinal Plants Board, Government of India has recognized Safed Musli as 6th important herb to be protected and promoted. The Board encourages mainstream cultivation of Safed Musli by farmers by extending a subsidy of 20% through National Horticultural Board on project cost.

Recent research on Safed Musli:

Safed musli ( Chlorophytum borivilianum) is well supported with research papers published all over the world in renowned medical research journals of recent times. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mumbai University Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, India. The aqueous extract of safed musli significantly reverted the elevated levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and serum corticosterone and also reduced the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight more as effectively as the standard drug (diazepam) in rats. Our result suggest that safed musli could be used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced disorders. During various study and research work, we observed “SAFED MUSLI” which was originally grown in dense forests in natural form could grow in our farm also. It is also found that “SAFED MUSLI” has vital natural oil which is good manure for good & robust health and ideal for mother-hood. It is also used in making Chyawanprash.

They grow the best quality of Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) having high medicinal value and optimum yield capacity. They are the leading producers of Musli in India with high skilled work force. In our farm, Musli is cultivated on over more than 200 acres of land. We supply best quality of wet & dry Musli.

Hiteshi Herbotech Pvt. Ltd.. in India have highly skilled staff members, who select the best Musli from their total production which goes for marketing. They take utmost care to give best quality goods at competitive prices which takes care of good health.

Safed Musli Crop Insurance Policy

Whereas the Insured by a proposal and declaration, which shall be the basis of this insurance contract and is deemed to be incorporated herein has applied for insurance hereunder contained and has paid the premium as consideration for such insurance to the “Insurance Company”. Now the Policy witnesses that subject to terms and conditions, clauses and exclusions contained herein or enclosed or otherwise attached hereon if after payment of the premium the Safed Musli crop described in the schedule of the policy or any part thereof shall be destroyed or damaged during the currency of the policy period directly due to:

  1. Fire
  2. Lightning
  3. Acts of Terrorism
  4. Riot and Strike
  5. Storm, cyclone, typhoon, tempest, hurricane, tornado, flood and inundation
  6. Earthquake
  7. Impact damage by Rail/Road vehicles/Wild animals

The insurance company will pay to the Insured the cost of inputs in case of Part I cover and value of root tuber in case of Part-II as defined in the manner and to the extent described herein at the time of operation of the peril subject to maximum liability of the company not exceeding the Sum Insured.

Provided always that due observance and fulfillment of the terms, conditions and exceptions of this policy in so far as they relate to anything to be done or complied with by the insured and the truth of the statements and answers in the proposal shall be deemed to be a condition precedent to the right of the insured to recover hereunder. The Schedule shall be deemed to be incorporated in and shall form part of this policy and the expression “this policy” wherever used in this contract shall be read as including the Schedule. Any word or expression to which a specific meaning has been attached in any part of this policy or of the Schedule shall bear the same meaning whenever it may appear. It is warranted that the whole of the farm under Safed Musli crop at a particular location belonging to the insured has been declared for insurance and is as described above. Sum Insured for Part “I” shall be based on the cost of cultivation i.e. input cost for raising/ development of the insured plant and for Part “II” it should be the anticipated market value of the tubers at field level after harvest. The market value consists of accumulated input cost, investment cost, interest charges and all other related costs, which are added together to derive the value of the end product in the market.

For input cost the items to be considered are as follows :

  • Cost of Land Preparation including Pit making.
  • Cost of Seeds/Seedlings.
  • Cost of manures/fertilizers.
  • Cost of pesticides.
  • Cost of irrigation.
  • Cost of intercultural operation.
  • Cost of microelements and plant hormones.
  • Cost of plant protection.
  • Labour charges for the above.
  • Other essential costs required for the plantation (to be specified).

Intercropping are allowed provided such crops do not pose any threat for the survival and growth of the Safed Musli plants and do not in any way aggravate the risk to the plant by any manner.

Indefinable limits: Part I

Since the Part I refers to the input costs incurred for stage wise cultivation of the crop , the maximum indemnity payable in case of any loss would be based on the following chart :

Stage of Plantation Percentage of Sum Insured
Upto 2 months 5%
Upto 3 months 10%
From 4 to 6 months 30%
From 7 months to 9 months 60%
From 9 months onwards 100%


Accordingly, the loss in any stage has to be assessed as shown above subject to actual cost of inputs incurred up to the date of loss. For the purpose of claims, death/totally damaged plants only shall be considered as loss under the policy. No decline and/or retardation of growth shall be deemed as loss.

Indemnifiable limits: Part II

Since the Part II refers to the market value of the tuber, the maximum indemnity payable in case of any loss would be based on the following chart:

Stage of Plantation/Policy Percentage of Sum Insured
Up to 2 months
Up to 3 months
Up to 6 months
Up to 9 months 80%
 Up to 11 months 100%

While assessing losses pertaining to yield, value for the tubers of Safed Musli are to be taken at actual market value at field level at the time of loss. Whenever the tubers are not matured for harvest, losses to such tubers are to be assessed by considering 3/4th value or the actual wholesale market value, at field level, at the time of loss, whichever is lower.Thus the amount of loss assessable under this section shall be such as is arrived at after applying the percentage of damage to yield, to the amount of market value per acre or the sum insured per acre as shown in the policy schedule, whichever is lower, subject to the terms, conditions, salvage, excess and any other deductions.

Standard Exclusions for this Safed Musli Crop Insurance Policy:

This insurance does not cover:

  • Loss by Burglary/ theft during or after the occurrence of any Insured peril;


  • Loss, damage and/or liability caused by or arising from or in consequence, directly or indirectly of:
    1. War, invasion, Act of foreign enemy, Hostilities or war like operations (whether war be declared or not), civil war, Rebellion, Revolution, Insurrection, Mutiny, Lockout, Malicious Damage, Civil Commotion, Military or Usurped Power, Martial Law, Conspiracy, Confiscation, Commandeering, person’s acting malicious on behalf of or in connection with any political organization. Requisition or destruction or damage by order of any Government de jure or de facto or by any public municipal authority.
    2. Nuclear reaction, nuclear radiation or radioactive contamination.
  • Earthquake, Volcanic Eruption or other Convulsions of nature other than those specifically covered by this Insurance.


  1. Loss or damage due to:
  • Insects, mites, pests & diseases including pests and disease due to or resulting from rainwater of whatsoever nature seasonal or otherwise, of known or unknown origin, and accompanying the insured peril or not.
  • Excessive/Deficient use of any nutrient either in soil or by application.
  • Any act of negligence/omission of Insured and/or his employees.
  • Willful negligence of insured and/or his employees and/or any one acting on their behalf.
  • Birds, animals and locust.
  • Fog and/or high humidity.
  • Human action or malicious act of any person.
  • Rainwater where the rains occur independently of the immediate and direct operation of the insured peril in the area in which the horticulture crop insured herein stands.
  • Improper selection of site and plant spacing for establishing orchard.
  • Frost or cold waves.
  • Delay in the onset of monsoon.
  • Excessive heat or heat waves.
  • Pollution of any form.
  • Improper maintenance.
  • Burning of property by the order of a public authority or arising out of any subterranean fire.
  • Water logging.


  1. Damage to the structure supporting the plants, Horticulture crop whether standing or harvested, irrigation system, agriculture, equipments and land.
  2. The excess, as stated in the schedule, to be first borne by the insured in each and every claim.
  3. Any kind of consequential loss.

7. This insurance also does not cover loss of or damage to the fertilizers, manures, pesticides and insecticides stored in the insured’s agriculture field.

  1. Inputs like capital investment i.e. cost of land, structure, plants and irrigation system and any agriculture equipments and implements.
  2. This insurance will not cover any loss or damage to crop after reaping/harvesting is done or whilst the crop is in storage or in transit.
  3. The Company will not be liable for any loss or damage occasioned directly or indirectly due to non-compliance with the package of practice and/or agricultural practice, recommended by the agricultural university, horticulture research stations in the area and/or fruit grower’s association, if available.
  4. Natural Mortality of Plants ( maximum up to 20%).


  1. Insured should cover the entire cultivation in one location.

2.It is agreed that the excess as described under exclusions shall apply separately to each incident giving rise to loss or damage and that for the purpose hereof an incident shall not be considered to have terminated until there have been seven consecutive days freedom from the perils concerned and that only thereafter shall the clause apply afresh.

3.This policy shall be voidable in the event of misrepresentation, mis-description, non-disclosure of any material particular.

  1. On happening of any loss or damage, the insured shall forthwith give notice hereof to the Company within 48 hours and shall within 15 days after loss or damage or each further time as the Company may in writing allow in that behalf deliver to the Company.The claim in writing for the loss or damage containing as particular an account as may be reasonable and practicable of all the several articles or items or property damaged or destroyed, and of the amount of the loss or damage thereto respectively, having regard to their value at the time of the loss or damage, not including profit of any kind. Particulars of all other insurances, if any should be provided to the company.The insured shall also at all times at his own expense, produce, procure and give to the Company, all such further particulars, plans, specifications, books, vouchers, notices, duplicates or copies thereof, documents, proofs and information with respect to the claim and the origin and causes of and the circumstances under which the loss or damage occurred and any matter touching the liability of the Company as may be reasonably required by or on behalf of the Company together with a declaration on oath or in other legal form of the truth of the claims and of any matters connected therewith.No claim under this policy shall be payable unless the terms of this condition have been complied with.
  2. The Company reserves the right to treat the claim as ‘no claim’ if the required information/documents are not submitted by the insured within a period of six months from the date of loss.


6.In no case whatsoever shall the Company be liable for any loss or damage after the expiration of 12 months from the happening of the loss or damage unless the claim is the subject of pending action or arbitration, it being expressly agreed and declared that if the Company shall disclaim liability for any claim hereunder and if such claim shall not within 12 calendar months from the date of the disclaimer have been made the subject matter of a suit in a Court of Law then the claim shall for all purposes be deemed to have been abandoned and shall not thereafter be recoverable hereunder.


7.The insured shall take all reasonable steps to safeguard his farm/plants from loss or damage and to maintain it in efficient condition and the Company shall have at all times free and full access to examine the plants or any part thereof.


  1. The due observance and fulfillment of the terms, conditions and endorsements of this policy in so far as they relate to anything to be done or complied with by the insured and the truth of the statements and answers in the said proposal form shall be conditions precedent to any liability of the Company to make any payment under the policy.


  1. If at the time any claim arises under this policy, there is any other existing insurance covering the same property against same loss or damage, the Company shall not be liable to pay or contribute more than its ratable proportion of any loss or damage, compensation costs or expenses.


  1. Condition of Average: If the insured has more than one acre of cultivation in any one location, he should insure all of them, failing which, if any claim arises, the claim will be settled in the proportion insured acreage bears to total acreage.


11.If the claim be in any respect fraudulent or if any false declaration be made or used in support thereof, or if any one acting on his behalf to obtain any benefit under this policy or if the loss or damage be occasioned by the willful act or with the connivance of the insured, all benefits under this policy shall be forfeited.


  1. The Company may at any time by notice in writing cancel this policy. Provided that the Company shall in such case return to the insured the last paid premium less a prorata part thereof for the portion of the current insurance period, which shall have expired. Such notice shall be deemed sufficiently given if posted, addressed to the insured at the address last registered in the Company’s books and shall be deemed to have been received by the insured within the time when the same would be delivered in the ordinary course of post or the policy may be cancelled at any time by the insured (provided no claim has arisen during the current period of insurance), and the insured shall be entitled to a return of premium less premium at the Company’s short period rates(table given below) for the period the policy has been in force:

Period of risk                                        Rate of premium to be charged

Up to 1month                                               1/4 of the annual rate

Up to 3 months                                           1/2 of the annual rate

Up to 6 months                                           3/4 of the annual rate

Exceeding 6 months                                   Full annual rate



  1. Arbitration : If any difference arises as to the amount of claim to be paid under this policy (liability being otherwise admitted), such difference shall independently of all other questions be referred to the decision of an Arbitrator to be appointed in writing by the parties in difference or if they cannot agree upon a single arbitrator, to the decision of two disinterested persons as arbitrators of whom one shall be appointed in writing by each of the parties within two calendar months after receipt of notice in writing requiring an appointment failing which, the other party shall be at the liberty to appoint a sole arbitrator and in case of disagreement between the arbitrators the difference shall be referred to the decision of an Umpire who shall have been appointed by them in writing before entering on the reference and who shall sit with the arbitrators and preside at all their meetings. Arbitration shall be conducted under and in accordance with the provisions of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.

The death of any party shall not revoke or affect the authority or powers of the arbitrator, arbitrators or umpire respectively and in the event of death of an arbitrator or umpire another shall be appointed in his place by the parties or arbitrators (as the case may be) by whom the arbitrator or umpire so dying was appointed. The cost of reference and of the award shall be at the discretion of the arbitrator, arbitrators or umpire making the award.

It is clearly agreed and understood that no difference shall be referable to arbitration as hereinbefore provided if the Company has disputed or not accepted liability in respect of this policy.

It is hereby expressly stipulated and declared that it shall be a condition precedent to any right of action or suit upon this policy that the award by the arbitrator or arbitrators or umpire of the amount of the loss or damage shall be first obtained.


  1. It is also hereby further expressly agreed and declared that if the Company shall disclaim liability to the insured for any claim hereunder and such claim shall not within 12 calendar months from the date of such disclaimer have been made the subject matter of a suit in a Court of Law, then the claim shall for all purposes be deemed to have been abandoned and shall not thereafter be recoverable hereunder. In no case whatsoever shall the Company be liable for any loss or damage after the expiration of 12 months from the happening of the loss or damage, unless the claim is the subject of pending action and/or arbitration.


  1. This insurance shall cease to attach if the interest in the subject matter of insurance passes from the insured to anyone otherwise than “WILL” or operation of Law.


  1. ONUS OF PROOF : In the event of the insured making any claim for loss or damage under this policy he/she must (if so required by the Company) prove that the loss or damage was occasioned by or through or in consequence of the peril covered.


  1. The insured shall maintain all farm records, plant population and pest/disease occurrence records and furnish the same at the time of loss.


  1. It is absolutely necessary for the insured to maintain the receipts/records of sales of Safed Musli tubers made from time to time.
  2. Upon payment of every single claim under this section of the policy, during any policy period, the sum insured shall stand reduced by the claim amounts paid or admitted.


  1. The Insured and any claimant under this Policy shall at the expense of the Company do or concur in doing or permit to be done all such acts and things that may be necessary or reasonably required by the Company for the purpose of enforcing any rights and remedies or obtaining relief or indemnity from other parties to which the Company shall be or would become entitled or subrogated upon the Company paying for or making good any loss or damage under this Policy whether such acts and things shall be or become necessary or required before or after the Insured’s indemnification by the Company.

BY: ANABIL BHATTACHARYA, Published : The Insurance Times, Jan,2013 Issue.